Types of Motors Used in Electric Vehicles

Electric vehicles are making a mark in the automobile industry and they are now the best possible alternative to gasoline vehicles. They use a different technology when compared to other conventional vehicles. Battery pack and motors generally determine the performance of an electric car.

Altering current (AC) motor and direct current (DC) motor are the two main type of motors used in electric cars. They are 100 % free from emission and keeps the environment clean. In contrary, they heavily depend on battery pack and are not operational when being charged.

Commonly Used Motors in Electric Cars

AC Motors

These cars generally use a three-phase motor and functions at 240 volts. Cars powered by AC motors run smoother both on roads and rough terrains and they offer great acceleration. AC motors are preferred over DC motors when it comes to high-end vehicles. These motors are again categorized into synchronous motors and asynchronous motors.

DC Motors

DC motors generally function between 96 and 192 volts and these motors generate more torque when compared to AC motors. They are mainly categorized into brushless DC motors, brushed DC motors and steppers. These motors cost less, but require frequent maintenance as its brushes and commutators wear quickly. Brushless DC motors have noiseless operation, better speed and quick dynamic response when compared to brushed DC motors and induction motors.

Induction Motor

This motor is the most cost-effective motor available in the market. This is currently the most reliable motor and can be implemented easily when compared to other motors. These motors usually require low maintenance because they come in simple design.

Synchronous Motor

The rotor in these motors turns at a higher speed when compared to an induction motor. The major advantages of these motors are low weight, high torque and higher efficiency.

AC Electric Car Motors Vs DC Electric Car Motors

Let’s look at some of key advantages of AC electric cars over DC electric cars

  • An AC motor can be adjusted to improve driving style, whereas a DC motor is not programmable.
  • An AC motor generates a favorable torque which helps them to last longer.
  • An AC motor usually offers high RPM and they eliminate issues such as brush advancing and commutator arching.
  • They have one moving part, and this makes them long-lasting, less costly, quiet and trouble free.
  • Revisiting a DC motor is much more complicated when compared to an AC motor.

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